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电气系统开销


例如先前所述,除了减少电气损耗,高效的系统也可以减少运行成本。为了更容易理解,我们将这些开销详细的进行分析:

技术成本

它们是什么
技术成本可以被理解为传输和配送过程中的损耗,例如发热(电气损耗),不平衡和电气设备和系统中的电压骤降。

它们是由什么产生的
以下是电气系统中导致产生技术壁垒的原因:

  • 最大需求峰值
  • 无功功率的存在
  • 谐波电流存在
  • 线上有不平衡负载
  • 使用非高效的设备

它们如何减少
技术成本减少方式“:

  • 无功补偿
  • 谐波滤除
  • 相平衡
  • 阻尼的峰值最大需求和重新定位谷期损耗

改善技术损耗的收益是什么

  • 减少电能损耗
  • 通过更好的利用传输线缆以及变压器提高电气系统中的电能效率
  • 减少线缆和设备中的损耗和过热问题。
  • 减少停机次数
  • 电气服务的延续性
  • 减少经济损失

经济成本

它们是什么
这些是未经优化的账单成本以及技术成本所产生的金额。它们可被分为:

  • 可见成本
  • 隐性成本

1- 可见成本

这些是包含在账单中的成本:

    • 电费合同不适用
    • 电费计费不适用
    • 每小时用电量
    • 需求峰值
    • 无功电能损耗

它们是怎样被减少的
通过研究电费账单,可以设定减少成本的需求操作

      • 调整合同电价,如果有必要,调整计费。这些基本上不需要操作成本,在调整合同电价或计费之前,建议研究过程和电能损耗验证需求量是否符合具体的实际需要。
      • 通过无功补偿来减少额外的收费或成本。为此,要安装电容柜,这在大多数情况下在安装后几个月之内即可收回成本。
      • 最大的阻尼峰值需求。是由设备最大允许量功率所组成的,在可能的情况下,将负载的能源需求量减少。

2- 隐性成本

它们是什么
- All unnecessary energy consumption. So, the costs due to unnecessary power and energy consumptions or due to can be dispensable certain time
- All the costs origined as a consequence of the technical costs and the use of receivers that can generate disturbances. Although they are not obvious, they can represent a signifi cant company expense. These are divided into two types:

      • Electrical installation costs
        • Extension of the electrical installations due to:
          • Overload of distribution lines
          • Overload of transformers
        • Losses in distribution due to the Joule effect. This concept is especially important in electric distribution and in industrial plants with long distance lines
        • Machine breakdowns (motors, transformers, converters, etc.) and control equipment (computers, PLCs)
      • Costs in productive processes
        • Installation stoppages
        • Non-finished product losses
        • Additional costs in extra working time and manpower

How are they reduced

    • By performing an effi ciency study of the building or industrial plant.
    • By correcting the technical costs explained in the previous point.

Which are the benefits of improving visible and hidden economical costs

  • Reduced energy consumption
  • Decrease of the electricity bill
  • No need to invest in the extension of installations due to the lack of capacity
  • Productivity improving by reducing the number of breakdowns and stoppages

Ecological costs

What are they
CO2 emissions produced by the consumption of unnecessary energy.
To give an idea of its magnitude, 1 MW·h generated by fossil fuels emits 1 ton of CO2. If considering mixed electric energy generated by fossil fules and renewable energy sources, the ratio is approximately 0.6 tons of CO2 per MW·h.

How are they reduced
By making a general proposal to reduce global energy consumption in an industrial plant or building. So that, an initial diagnosis is required to determine the following points:

  • Energy consumption habits
  • Current condition of the installation
  • Installation of equipment that permits controlling and monitoring the energy consumption in the electric installations
  • Energy consumption in each plant or working area
  • The energy consumption that can be reduced
  • The receivers that can be replaced by effi cient ones

Which are the benefits of improving ecological costs

  • Reduction of the emissions of greenhouse effect
  • Decrease of technical and economical costs


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